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Akhmet Zhubanov is the Coryphaeus of Kazakh Musical Culture

O Dear listener! You are holding in your hands the latest CD of "Asyl Mura" humanitarian non-commercial project, dedicated to the 100th Jubilee of the outstanding Kazakh composer Akhmet Zhubanov. The CD's release was made possible thanks to financial support of the "Coca-Cola CIS Services Ltd" Representative office in Almaty and Public Fund "Kazenergy".

One can hardly name the sphere of musical culture of the 20th century into which Akhmet Kuanovich Zhubanov would not bring a significant contribution and would not become a determining figure generating a new idea. Akhmet Zhubanov stood at source of professional musical education, musical study of folklore and musicology. He became one of the founders of the composer school in Kazakhstan and the founder of the form of playing music, new for Kazakh culture - the Orchestra of the Kazakh Folk Musical Instruments (nowadays it is the famous State Academic Orchestra of Folk Musical Instruments named after Kurmangazy). He was a conductor and a teacher-lecturer, the author of a great number of remarkable pieces of music, the arranger of works of different musical genres, the collector and notation scripter of folk songs and kyuis. The legendary information about the Kazakh folk composers collected by him laid the basis of his numerous articles, books and performances. A. Zhubanov's activity in Kazakh culture was universal and comprehensive, his work - selfless, while energy - inexhaustible.

Akhmet K. Zhubanov was born on April 29, 1906 in the Aktyubinsk region. At the age of 13 he lost his father, but his elder brother, �udaibergen Zhubanov, later, a prominent scientist and a first Kazakh professor-linguist, made much for Akhmet's upbringing and education. At his urgent request, Akhmet Zhubanov in 1929 together with him went to study to Leningrad. In this center for world science and education he attended the lectures by the leading musicologists, philologists and ethnographers. He became a student of the Leningrad Conservatoire and later, entered the postgraduate course of the Academy of Art History. However, to graduate from it prevented the opening of the musical and drama school in Alma-Ata into which A. Zhubanov was invited to work as a head of the teaching department. By that time, A. Zhubanov not only started to write down the Kazakh musical folklore, but also became the author of the first musical-theoretical work entitled "Musical Alphabet".

At musical school A. Zhubanov opened a folk music cabinet, the experimental musical workshop on improving folk musical instruments, and organized an ensemble of 11 dombra players - students of the musical and drama school. Later this ensemble became a core of the orchestra of Kazakh folk musical instruments. Thus the start was given to the important work on rapprochement and fruitful interaction between the Kazakh traditional music and the forms of European and Russian musical culture. As a result of this work is the contemporary musical art of Kazakhstan. A. Zhubanov, by his personal participation - creative, intellectual and organizational - in many respects has defined its current shape.

The Orchestra of the Kazakh Folk Musical Instruments is a separate large theme of A. Zhubanov's creative activity. He not only stood at source, but to be exact, became a creator of this remarkable phenomenon in the Kazakh musical culture of the 20th century. He made great efforts to develop the repertoire and improve the professional level of the orchestra' musicians.

As a composer, A. Zhubanov created the bright works in different genres - instrumental, vocal, choral, and musical-scenic (operas, the music to drama performances and films). The instrumental pieces of music by A. Zhubanov - "Aria", "Romance", and "��ktem" (Spring) - sound both in the original violin performance and in transposition for kobyz, violoncello and other instruments. The repertoire of the starting (and not only) pianists always contained the "Tadjik Dances" and "Kazakh Dances" composed by him. A. Zhubanov's vocal products - generally loved "��rlygash", "�� Kogershin", "Umytpa", and "A� Sholpan" - conquered the hearts of the listeners by their simplicity, sincerity and national original melody. Among the orchestral works very popular is the suite "�bai" for the Orchestra of Kazakh Folk Instruments.

The opera genre is one more top conquered by �. Zhubanov-composer. The opera "�bai" written by A. Zhubanov in co-authorship with L. Khamidi is a work fully corresponding to the scale of the genius of Kazakh written literature, Abai. How national was Abai, so organic and national was the music of opera.

The new genre version of opera is the radio-opera "�urmangazy". During his lifetime, Akhmet Zhubanov did not manage to embody his idea to the end. The last strokes, instrumentation, a concert and scenic version of the opera were completed by his daughter - an outstanding woman-composer Gaziza Zhubanova. She inherited the main thing from her father: a great talent and a passionate desire in every possible way to promote development and flourishing of native culture.

The 1st disc includes the well known compositions by A. Zhubanov: his own pieces of music and adaptations of kyuis for the orchestra of the Kazakh folk instruments (part of them are conducted by him), the chamber (instrumental and vocal) compositions, as well as the fragments from the radio-opera "�urmangazy".

In the field of musicology, A. Zhubanov, the academician, the People's Artist of the Kazakh SSR and the laureate of the State premium, has also blazed a trial. He outstripped his time and defined the most prospective directions in the development of musicological science of Kazakhstan. The central theme of A. Zhubanov-musicologist is Kurmangazy, a folk composer of the 19th century, a kyui player, kyuishi, and a creator of kyuis. A. Zhubanov wrote a monograph about �urmangazy (1936), published a collection of kyuis by Kurmangazy and wrote a great number of articles, among which especially distinguished was the essay about �urmangazy from his well-known book "The Strings of Centuries".

The lecture-concert "�urmangazy", prepared for the Kazakh radio and read by Akhmet Zhubanov himself on air, gives a bright presentation about the great scientist-researcher, collector and specialist in folklore, who has a special lecture gift. His contemporaries are unanimous in their appraisal of Zhubanov's mastery as a lecturer. He always spoke in a gentle voice, not raising an intonation, but amazing was the strength and charm of his personality due to which the students devoured every word of the great master! The richness of thoughts and mellowness of language, independent opinion, free speech and improvised statements - all these qualities are shown in the unique archival recording of the lecture read by A. Zhubanov, which, with small reductions, entered the 2nd disc.


The fragments of the text by A. Zhubanov from his book "The String of Centuries" (from the introduction and the essay about �urmangazy).

"Among all musical instruments more freely and widely in the Kazakh steppe sound a simple companion of the nomad life - dombra. Its silver voice narrates about many things! Its strings keep a musical wisdom of centuries. Dombra is an original and sonorous history of nomad tribes. Many remarkable pieces of music, which have survived centuries, were created for dombra by the anonymous steppe musicians. Their compositions for folk musical instruments, that is, the musical plays for dombra, kobyz and sybyzgi, the Kazakhs name as kyui. The deepness of musical language, the presence of purely instrumental virtuosity skills, the program character of narration of these legends speak about the fact that instrumental culture was highly developed in Kazakhstan.

In the first quarter of the past century many glorified kyuishi were in the Bukeyev horde, among whom Uzak was especially distinguished. The oral stories say that �urmangazy was the pupil of Uzak. However, he surpassed his teacher and became a founder of the musical tradition bearing a really democratic feature. Being himself a man from the people, �urmangazy enriched Kazakh instrumental music, first of all, in a way that he approached its contents to the live reality, to direct affairs and thoughts of broad masses. Before, the contents of kyuis were connected mainly with the legends and folk stories.

Kurmangazy was a contemporary artist in the best sense of this word, the singer of strength and beauty of the persons struggling for their rights and withstanding trials, such as in poetry was the great �bai. In heroic music by �urmangazy we hear the rhythms of horse races, the melodies singing about victories, and the sounds of fanfares calling for struggle.

�urmangazy derived a maximum of opportunities from dombra and introduced new ways of playing this musical instrument widening its opportunities. (�) Together with Uzak, he participated in many musical contests of the largest representatives of folk musical art, day after day developing his skills. He started to enter the number of the outstanding dombra players and mastered to play kyuis requiring excellence in performance. The first compositions by Kurmanagazy refer to the late thirties of the 19th century. One of the well-known kyuis at the initial stage of his creative art was "Kishkentai" (Small). According to the story by U. Kabigozhin, who informed us about this kyui, Kurmangazy devoted it to the fighting affairs of Isatai on behalf of "the younger brother - to the senior brother - to the national hero".

All kyuis by Kurmangazy are peculiar by their optimism of strong nature; they are filled with the rebellious spirit and remind us the burning verses by Makhambet Utemisov. Certainly, all of them are connected with the situation surrounded their author, with the events which were undergone by kuishi during this or that period of his live. Many of them are largely autobiographical, but each bears in itself the generally accepted ideas and images."


Editors - compilers: B. Baikadamova and S. Yelemanova.


Table of contents # 1

1. Akhmet Zhubanov. Abay.
Download (15,4 Mb)

2. Akhmet Zhubanov. Aiman-Sholpan
Download (4,84 Mb)

3. Akhmet Zhubanov.Kosalka.
Download (2,29 Mb)

4. Akhmet Zhubanov. Kui "Bi"
Download (2,40 Mb)

5. Akhmet Zhubanov. Kui "Bi"
Download (2,25 Mb)

6. Akhmet Zhubanov. Kazakh march
Download (3,43 Mb)

7. Akhmet Zhubanov. Zhetim bala
Download (1,95 Mb)

8. Akhmet Zhubanov. Aria
Download (2,41 Mb)

9. Akhmet Zhubanov. Spring
Download (2,89 Mb)

10. Akhmet Zhubanov. Zhez Kiik
Download (2,15 Mb)

11. Akhmet Zhubanov. Romans
Download (3,85 Mb)

12. Akhmet Zhubanov. Karligash
Download (2,58 Mb)

13. Akhmet Zhubanov. Umipta
Download (2,06 Mb)

14. Akhmet Zhubanov. Ak kogershin
Download (2,16 Mb)

15. Akhmet Zhubanov. Tajik dance # 1
Download (2,41 Mb)

16. Akhmet Zhubanov. Tajik dance # 2
Download (875 Кb)

17. Akhmet Zhubanov. Tajik dance # 4
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18. Akhmet Zhubanov. Tajik dance # 5
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19. Akhmet Zhubanov, H. Zhubanova. Kyrmangazy
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20. Akhmet Zhubanov, H. Zhubanova. Kyrmangazy. Aria
Download (3,42 Mb)

21. Akhmet Zhubanov, H. Zhubanova. Kyrmangazy arioso
Download (2,41 Mb)

Table of contents # 2

1. The lecture-concert "�urmangazy"
Download (18,9 Mb)

2. The lecture-concert "�urmangazy"
Download (23,3 Mb)

3. The lecture-concert "�urmangazy"
Download (5,68 Mb)

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